Diencephalic syndrome, or Russell’s syndrome is a rare neurological disorder seen in infants and children and characterised by failure to thrive and severe emaciation despite normal or slightly decreased caloric intake. Classically there is also locomotor hyperactivity and euphoria.
This condition is usually found in infants and young children and may result in symptoms including failure to gain weight and grow normally (failure to thrive), progressive thinness and weakness (emaciation), and hyperactivity and restlessness (hyperkinesia). Other symptoms may include abnormal eye movements and vision issues, vomiting, and hydrocephalus.
Diencephalic syndrome is most commonly caused by astrocytomas; however, other types of tumors may be associated including ependymoma, dysgerminoma, and ganglioma.